|Rice farmers in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, NAD, Indonesia | Photo: Elok Mulyoutami|
"Typically, that sells chocolate from orchard to market ya moms, because that received money mothers. Even if his father were selling, so the money should be given to the mothers ". Once the explanation mothers who attend the discussion in the village Campaga Bantaeng district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. As he joked, discussion facilitator asks, what if the money is not given to mothers? These mothers spontaneously responded by explaining that the money from the sale of chocolate, coffee and garden products must be submitted to the mothers to spend household needs.
This extract is an illustration depicting that the women have a big enough role in the marketing of products from their gardens, in addition to its primary role as a manager of money from the sale of garden products to meet the needs of the family. The facts demonstrate that gender issues are important to be understood and considered in the development of an activity, because it will affect the success of the activities developed.
What is gender?
Gender is often equated its significance to the distinction of sex between women and men. But actually, the issue of gender in recent years much discussed is related to the role, the position and responsibilities of women and men in society and the relationship these roles.
The gender difference is actually not a problem as far as not giving birth gender inequality (gender inequalities). However, with the increasing openness of information and communication, gender inequality an issue that appears in various parts of the world and interesting to discuss. Gender inequality is itself a system and structure that resulted in one gender, whether it be women or men, are victims. Gender inequality manifests itself in various forms, including:
~ The marginalization or exclusion of rights, where the rights of one gender overlooked because of gender interests of others or for the benefit of greater political
~ The subordination or humiliation position, status and role in the decision of a political nature
~ Stereotype or negative labeling
~ The workload is longer and more (multi loads)
Problems in gender often appear more influenced by social commentary itself. In many cases, gender issues are often more apparent when women are marginalized, so the issue of gender as though synonymous with women's issues. For example, in economic participation, men earn a greater chance than women. Similarly, in access to information and markets, women generally have greater limitations than men.
The development of gender issues from time to time
Attention to gender issues is born from the idea feminist movement that focuses on women is due to the quality of the women themselves. Women are not able to compete with men to participate and enjoy the fruits of development. Recommended effort is to involve women more actively in development to improve the lives of women as well as for the success of the development program efficiency. This approach has been made by the majority of international organizations such as the UN, World Bank, USAID and government agencies through a global program Woman in Development or WID.
As an alternative, came the idea of a class of female observers to emphasize gender as a social construct which contains elements of injustice. This influence on the policy and the development model that is planned and carried out. This thinking emphasizes the ideological structures and society is the source of such injustice.
Attention to gender issues now, at least from two such thinking. Design development is not only concerned with the practical issues of gender and development, but also must strive to change the situation and conditions of the underlying inequality as long-term goals.
Gender issues in Indonesia and in the world
In Indonesia, gender mainstreaming has been instructed by the President through Presidential Instruction No. 9/2000 which aims at realizing gender equity and equality in family life, society, nation and state. Gender mainstreaming is an important aspect of good governance, how to design development programs and policies that can respond to the needs and interests of women are different from men, and distribute benefits equitably between women and men.
As mentioned in Presidential Instruction No. 9/200 that gender mainstreaming is a strategy developed to integrate gender in the planning, preparation, implementation, monitoring, evaluation of national development policies and programs. Some things need to be done in gender mainstreaming synergize are:
~ Increased participation of women in decision-making;
~ Increased awareness about their needs and experiences differ between women and men, so that an intervention to environmental problems will also differ between women and men;
~ Fix the various environment-related information to the gender disaggregated data collection.
Not only in Indonesia, gender mainstreaming program is also part of a global strategy to promote gender equality are proposed in the action plan adopted at the International Conference IV on Women in Beijing in 1995 and is the mandate of the United Nations which was launched in June of 2000.
Why is the gender issues become so important?
Naturally and in many cases, men and women have different experiences in addressing a problem and will generate knowledge and decision making differently. One example is how women make decisions in marketing agroforestry products from his garden and how women use the money from the sale of products such as the passage above. This shows that there are differences between men and women in utilizing the resources they have and that are in the vicinity.
Men more moves in the realm of productive like looking for a source of household income, while women are more involved in meeting the needs of the household among others in fulfilling the needs of food and water. From these examples it can be seen that there is actually a division of roles between men and women in a variety of life, one of which is the management of natural resources in the last decade has been much discussion with regard to lowering the natural resources and environment.